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International treaties, conventions, and organizations to protect refugees were established in the aftermath of World War II to protect people escaping targeted persecution by their own governments. However, the nature of cross-border displacement has transformed dramatically since then. Such threats as environmental change, food insecurity, and generalized violence force massive numbers of people to flee states that are unable or unwilling to ensure their basic rights, as do conditions in failed and fragile states that make possible human rights deprivations. Because these reasons do not meet the legal understanding of persecution, the victims of these circumstances are not usually recognized as "refugees," preventing current institutions from ensuring their protection. In this book, Alexander Betts develops the concept of "survival migration" to highlight the crisis in which these people find themselves.
Examining flight from three of the most fragile states in Africa—Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Somalia—Betts explains variation in institutional responses across the neighboring host states. There is massive inconsistency. Some survival migrants are offered asylum as refugees; others are rounded up, detained, and deported, often in brutal conditions. The inadequacies of the current refugee regime are a disaster for human rights and gravely threaten international security. In Survival Migration, Betts outlines these failings, illustrates the enormous human suffering that results, and argues strongly for an expansion of protected categories.
This revised and expanded second edition of The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) continues to offer a concise and comprehensive introduction to both the world of refugees and the organizations that protect and assist them. This updated edition also includes:
- up to date coverage of the UNHCR’s most recent history and policy developments
- evaluation of new thinking on issues such as working in UN integrated operations and within the UN peacebuilding commission
- assessment of the UNHCR’s record of working for IDP’s (internally displaced persons)
- discussion of the politics of protection and its implications for the work of the UNHCR
- outline of the new challenges for the agency including environmental refugees, victims of natural disasters and survival migrants.
Written by experts in the field, this is one of the very few books to trace the relationship between state interests, global politics, and the work of the UNHCR. This book will appeal to students, scholars, practitioners, and readers with an interest in international relations.
States located near crisis zones are most likely to see an influx of people fleeing from manmade disasters; African states, for instance, are forced to accommodate and adjust to refugees more often than do European states far away from sites of upheaval. Geography dictates that states least able to pay the costs associated with refugees are those most likely to have them cross their borders. Therefore, refugee protection has historically been characterized by a North-South impasse. While Southern states have had to open their borders to refugees fleeing conflict or human rights abuses in neighboring states, Northern states have had little obligation or incentive to contribute to protecting refugees in the South.
In recent years, however, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has sought to foster greater international cooperation within the global refugee regime through special conferences at which Northern states are pushed to contribute to the costs of protection for refugees in the South. These initiatives, Alexander Betts finds in Protection by Persuasion, can overcome the North-South impasse and lead to significant cooperation. Betts shows that Northern states will contribute to such efforts when they recognize a substantive relationship between refugee protection in the South and their own interests in such issues as security, immigration, and trade. Highlighting the mechanisms through which UNHCR has been able to persuade Northern states that such links exist, Protection by Persuasion makes clear that refugee protection is a global concern, most effectively addressed when geographic realities are overridden by the perception of interdependence.
In order to address this gap, Global Migration Governance brings together a group of the world's leading experts to consider the global governance of different aspects of migration. The chapters offer an accessible introduction to the global governance of low-skilled labor migration, high-skilled labor migration, irregular migration, lifestyle migration, international travel, refugees, internally displaced persons, human trafficking and smuggling, diaspora, remittances, and root causes. Each of the chapters explores the three same broad questions: What, institutionally, is the global governance of migration in that area? Why, politically, does that type of governance exist? How, normatively, can we ground claims about the type of global governance that should exist in that area? Collectively, the chapters enhance our understanding of the international politics of migration and set out a vision for international cooperation on migration.
- Provides an accessible and thought-provoking introduction to the main debates and concepts in international relations and examines their relevance for understanding forced migration
- Utilizes a wide-range of real-world examples and in-depth case studies, including the harmonization of EU asylum and immigration policy and the securitization of asylum since 9/11
- Explores the relevance of cutting-edge debates in international relations to forced migration
place refugees within the mainstream of International Relations.
Drawing together the work and ideas of a combination of the world's leading and emerging International Relations scholars, the volume considers what ideas from International Relations can offer our understanding of the international politics of forced migration. The insights draw from across the theoretical spectrum of International Relations from realism to critical theory to feminism, covering issues including international cooperation, security, and the international political economy.
They engage with some of the most challenging political and practical questions in contemporary forced migration, including peacebuilding, post-conflict reconstruction, and statebuilding. The result is a set of highly original chapters, yielding not only new concepts of wider relevance to International
Relations but also insights for academics, policy-makers, and practitioners working on forced migration in particular and humanitarianism in general.
Mehr als 65 Millionen Menschen sind weltweit auf der Flucht. Doch die Instrumente und Institutionen, mit denen wir auf diese humanitäre Herausforderung reagieren, sind hoffnungslos veraltet und haben für Millionen Flüchtlinge fatale Folgen. Die beiden Experten für Flüchtlingsfragen Paul Collier und Alexander Betts zeigen, warum eine Politik der offenen Tür ebenso gefährlich ist wie Abschottung. Anhand konkreter Beispiele machen sie deutlich, wie wir den Menschen auf der Flucht wirklich helfen können.
Seit Jahren wird die Flüchtlingspolitik weltweit von einer »Politik des herzlosen Kopfes« bestimmt – bevor sie sich im Sommer 2015, vor allem in Deutschland, dann plötzlich in eine »Politik des kopflosen Herzens« verwandelte. Beides ist gefährlich, für die Flüchtlinge, die aufnehmenden Länder und die Heimatländer der Fliehenden. Statt wahllos Menschen ins Land zu lassen oder sie jahrzehntelang in Lagern oder Unterkünften zu verwahren, brauchen wir einen anderen Umgang mit Flüchtlingen. Wir müssen sie in die Lage versetzen, rasch wieder für sich selbst zu sorgen – und möglichst schnell in ihre Heimat zurückzukehren. Paul Collier und Alexander Betts ziehen in ihrem Buch eine schonungslose Bilanz der aktuellen Flüchtlingspolitik und zeigen, wie neue Regeln und Institutionen aussehen können, die ethische, humanitäre und ökonomische Überlegungen vereinen.