The Reason for God: Belief in an Age of Skepticism Audible Audiobook – Abridged
The End of Faith. The God Delusion. God Is Not Great. Letter to a Christian Nation. Best seller lists are filled with doubters. But what happens when you actually doubt your doubts?
Timothy Keller, the founding pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City, addresses the frequent doubts that skeptics, and even ardent believers, have about religion. Using literature, philosophy, real-life conversations, and potent reasoning, Keller explains how the belief in a Christian God is, in fact, a sound and rational one. To true believers he offers a solid platform on which to stand their ground against the backlash to religion created by the Age of Skepticism. And to skeptics, atheists, and agnostics, he provides a challenging argument for pursuing the reason for God.
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|Listening Length||5 hours and 46 minutes|
|Audible.com Release Date||January 07, 2009|
|Best Sellers Rank|| #4,337 in Audible Books & Originals (See Top 100 in Audible Books & Originals) |
#2 in Christian Evangelism (Audible Books & Originals)
#7 in Christian Apologetics (Audible Books & Originals)
#16 in Evangelism
Reviewed in the United States on August 15, 2018
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Tim doesn't try to "prove" Christianity or that God exists- no one can do this. But he makes excellent, well articulated and reasoned arguments for why it is reasonable to believe in God. If you are looking for theology, this is not your book (this book is much more philosophical if anything). But if you are looking for a book that argues the rationale for belief in God from a reasonable perspective, this is your book! Very highly recommended!
Preference: Tim starts off with a strawman of an atheist, “To be a secular person – to believe, for example, that there is no God…” Yes, an atheist may believe there is no god. However, the majority of atheists lack a belief in a god. Or a better way to say it is they cannot accept the claims made by humans that a god exists; in most cases due to lack of demonstrable and verifiable evidence. Here are the definitions of faith: Complete trust or confidence in someone or something OR strong belief in a god or the doctrines of a religion based on spiritual apprehension rather than proof. I have neither of these, so I do not have faith. He has now clearly set up a strawman so he can argue against and defeat that strawman. In this case he wants his readers (mostly Christians) to believe that non-believer has some kind of faith, when in fact most do not.
Intro: Here is a quote from Tim: “But even us believers should learn to look for reasons behind their faith, skeptics must learn to look for the type of faith hidden in their reasoning. All doubts, however skeptical and cynical they may seem, are really a set of alternate beliefs. You cannot doubt Belief A except from a position of faith in Belief B. For example, if you doubt Christianity because “There can’t be just one true religion,” you must recognize that this statement is itself is an act of faith.” First, I do not doubt Christianity for the reason he gave. I doubt Christianity because Christians have failed to provide sufficient evidence for me to believe.
Part 1: The Leap of Doubt:
1. There can’t be just one true religion: I would never make this claim. Each religion is required to provide sufficient evidence for belief. So far, I have found none that can meet their burden of proof.
2. How could a good god allow suffering: A good human would attempt to elevate unnecessary suffering of other humans. If there were a god, it should be held to the same standards. In reality, suffering happens for many reasons and we humans must simply deal with it.
3. Christianity is a straightjacket: This section does not apply to me. It talks about absolute truth being the enemy of freedom. This chapter is really about absolute morality. All morality is subjective at some level. We humans have shared morals because we understand what it feels like to be human. So we know what gives us pleasure and pain. We can understand that other humans feel the same way. So we understand the potential benefits of giving pleasure and the potential consequences of causing pain. That is the baseline of human morality; human wellbeing (an to a lesser extent animal wellbeing). Ultimately Tim can not demonstrate absolute morality exists.
4. The church is responsible for so much injustice: People cause injustice; the church is just a group of people. This is not relevant to demonstrating the claims made by Christians or the bible are factually accurate.
5. How can a loving god send people to hell: First, this one makes a lot of assumptions such as, a god exists, a soul exists, there is such a place as heaven, and there is such a place as hell. All of these claims must be demonstrated to be true and there is no use in speaking any further about theoretical eternal suffering or bliss until we have proof of the existence of the above mentioned.
6. Science has disproved Christianity: Science does not have an agenda to disprove religion. However, there have been demonstrable and verifiable scientific findings which conflict with information presented in the bible. Tim does into how scientists have a bias against the supernatural. Here is the issue; we have absolutely no way of investigating anything genuinely supernatural, therefore we humans have no means of differentiating between a claimed supernatural event and something that does not exist at all. Theist who claim supernatural occurrences have happened must demonstrate that actually supernatural occurrences happened. So far no one has been able to demonstrate a genuine miracle; we currently only have unverified claims.
7. You can’t take the bible Literally: Here Tim attempts to prove the factually accuracy of the bible by appealing to history. I agree that there are actual places, landmarks and people mentioned in the bible. However, history alone cannot prove miracle claims actually happened. For example: we have information written by historians about Alexander the great. We also have additional cooperating evidence such as many coins with his image, sculptures of him by several artists, monuments and cities named after him, and accounts written by others (both allies and enemies). We can accept he was a real person with a high degree of confidence based on this evidence. However, we should NOT accept the claims that he was born of a virgin and his father was a god. This extraordinary claim requires a much higher standard of evidence to prove it is true.
8. The Clues of God: Here comes the standard apologetics: 1. The first cause or cosmological argument. Why there is something rather than nothing. If you are claiming a god did it you must demonstrate that god exists. 2. The fine-tuning argument. Again, if you are claiming an entity did the fine-tuning you must demonstrate that entity exists in some demonstrable way. 3. The laws of nature argument. Yet again, if you are positing a god you must demonstrate it exists. 4. The argument from beauty. Beauty is subjective and is an emotional reaction. What one person finds beautiful another may not. If you are stating a god created beauty you must demonstrate that god exists. 5. The existence of cognitive faculties. Our current understanding would be evolution. However, if a god did it, please demonstrate that god exists. 6. Tim goes on to claim that we all have an “unfulfillable longing” or “innate desire” within us which cannot be satisfied here in the real world and states it is a clue for god. This is simply an unjustified, and extremely vague, claim. Tim, please demonstrate what this longing is and how it connects to a god… and then prove that god exists.
9. The knowledge of god: Tim is claiming our morals come from god. Yet again please demonstrate your god actually exists.
10. The problem of sin: Humans do things that others consider to be immoral (not in the best interest of human wellbeing). Yes this is true and we potentially face real world consequences for these actions. In order to demonstrate sin exists you must demonstrate there is a god who created divine laws which we broke.
11. Religion and the gospel: Here Tim uses the claims made in the bible to attempt to prove the claims made in the bible are true. This is circular reasoning. Tim claims that Christianity is not a religion because Jesus claimed to actually be the way of salvation himself. This does not follow. Tim must demonstrate the Jesus described in the bible was a real person as well as a supernatural being. Can he do that? He certainly does not do this in his book.
12. The (true) story of the cross: This chapter is about why Jesus had to die for god to forgive man’s sin. Tim has not yet demonstrated that Jesus was a supernatural being, a god exists and sin exists.
13. The reality of the resurrection: Here is a quote from Tim “…if you disbelieved the resurrection you then had the difficulty of explaining how the Christian church got stated at all.” Nope. It started just like any other religion. Someone convened them a god (or gods) existed, they believed, then they got organized. This one is ridiculous because there have been thousands of religions. They all started in a similar way.
14. The Dance of God. Here Tim tries again to make Christianity should special because they have a triune god. So what! There have been religions with an actual single god (Judaism for example) and religions with many gods (Greek). Just because you claim you have a single god that some how is really 3 gods does not make the claim true. You must demonstrate this claim is true.
Epilogue: Not much more to say here. Mostly just preaching to Christians.
This book contains no actual evidence for the existence of a god or for any of the supernatural elements contained in the stories found in the christian bible. I find it a bit sad that all of the christian apologetic arguments simply fail. I found nothing new in this book that I haven't read in other christian apologetic books. Although these types of books are not written for skeptics, atheists or people who adhere to other religious beliefs because these people would most likely not find any of the information convincing. These books are written as christian propaganda for christian believers to bolster their "faith."
Please forgive any typos.
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He talks of ‘natural selection’ (A phrase used by evolutionists) and tries to make out that the first chapter of Genesis is not to be taken literally.
He gives an example from the book of Judges chapter 4 and 5, and the book of Exodus chapter 14 and 15 where in one chapter it is talking about an historical event that happened, and in the next, a song or poem follows in response to that event. He reasons that Genesis chapter 1 ‘has the earmarks of poetry and is therefore a song about the wonder and meaning of God’s creation.’
In other words he is saying that the universe was not really created in 6 days, therefore implying, that it could have existed for millions/billions of years, which would fit nicely with what evolutionists believe. He mentions that it doesn’t have to be one or the other and that you can actually be a believer in the Bible as well as someone who believes in evolution.
It really does baffle me how these apparently ‘well learned and deeply religious’ people can come to such conclusions when the context of Genesis chapter 1 and 2 clearly do not fit that theory.
Firstly, in the books of Judges and Exodus, an event has just taken place in which God has delivered his people and so in the following chapter the people are giving a song of praise to thank God for what he has done. So the ‘song or poem’ follows the event, and this is the pattern in the Bible (See 2 Samuel in which King David shows another example of this). Whereas the author would have you believe that in the very first chapter of the Bible, it bursts right away ‘into song’ and has no literal meaning and then the literal meaning comes afterwards. This does not follow the pattern of the Bible and does not make sense.
Also if you read the last verse of Genesis chapter 1 and the first couple of verses of chapter 2 it says:
“And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.”
To me it’s clearly evident from the context that both chapters are being literal as the beginning of chapter 2 clearly follows on from chapter 1. It is a continuation.
In regards to evolution, the Bible clearly tells us that God created human beings in the same period of time that he created all other creatures of the earth. It does not say for example that God created the beasts/animals of the earth and then, millions of years later, man evolved.
Fellow Christians do not buy into what some of these ‘so called’ Christians out there are presenting. They are evidently blinded and in danger of polluting the minds of people with the theories they present.
Seems to me that they have lost faith in the true teachings of the Bible and have been led astray by ‘Darwinism’ and are now trying to merge the two so that they can believe in both.
I think he relies a little too much on C. S. Lewis for quotes. Although Lewis' reflections on Christianity are profound, Keller's book would have more credibility if he used a wider range of sources.
Also, I was disappointed that he didn't address one of my big 'issues' with my Christian faith: what happens to the souls of those who never had the chance to hear the Gospel?
Some chapters are weaker than others, but overall this is a fantastic resource and is highly recommended to Christian or those who are seeking (sceptics are likely to feel affronted as Keller is quite critical of the secular mindset!).