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About Tsunetomo Yamamoto
Yamamoto Tsunetomo (山本 常朝?), also read Yamamoto Jōchō (June 11, 1659 – November 30, 1719) was a samurai of the Saga Domain in Hizen Province under his lord Nabeshima Mitsushige. For thirty years Yamamoto devoted his life to the service of his lord and clan. When Nabeshima died in 1700, Yamamoto did not choose to follow his master in death in junshi because the master had expressed a dislike of the practice in his life. Instead, Yamamoto followed his lord's wishes and refrained from junshi. After some disagreements with Nabeshima's successor, Yamamoto renounced the world and retired to a hermitage in the mountains. Later in life (between 1709 and 1716), he narrated many of his thoughts to a fellow samurai, Tsuramoto Tashiro. Many of these aphorisms concerned his lord's father and grandfather Naoshige and the failing ways of the samurai caste. These commentaries were compiled and published in 1716 under the title of Hagakure, a word that can be translated as either In the shadow the Leaves or hidden leaves.
The Hagakure was not widely known during the years following Tsunetomo's death, but by the 1930s it had become one of the most famous representatives of bushido taught in Japan. In 2011 a manga/comic book version was published Hagakure, The manga edition, translated by William Scott Wilson, adapted by Sean Michael Wilson and Chie Kutsuwada (Kondansha International Ltd., 2011).
Tsunetomo believed that becoming one with death in one's thoughts, even in life, was the highest attainment of purity and focus. He felt that a resolution to die gives rise to a higher state of life, infused with beauty and grace beyond the reach of those concerned with self-preservation. Some viewed him as a man of immediate action due to some of his quotes, and in the Hagakure he criticized the carefully planned Akō vendetta of the Forty-seven Ronin (a major event in his lifetime) for its delayed response.
Yamamoto Tsunetomo is also known as Yamamoto Jōchō, the name he took after retiring and becoming a monk.
Bio from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Photo by unknown [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
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The Hagakure is one of the most influential of all Japanese texts--written nearly 300 years ago by Yamamoto Tsunetomo to summarize the very essence of the Japanese Samurai bushido ("warrior") spirit. Its influence has been felt throughout the world, and yet its existence is scarcely known to many Westerners. This is the first translation to include the complete first two books of the Hagakure and the most reliable and authentic passages contained within the third book; all other English translations published previously have been extremely fragmentary and incomplete.
Alex Bennett's completely new and highly readable translation of this essential work includes extensive footnotes that serve to fill in many cultural and historical gaps in the previous translations. This unique combination of readability and scholarship gives Hagakure: The Secret Wisdom of the Samurai a distinct advantage over all previous English editions.
Living and dying with bravery and honor is at the heart of Hagakure, a series of texts written by an eighteenth-century samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo. It is a window into the samurai mind, illuminating the concept of bushido—the Way of the Warrior—which dictated how samurai were expected to behave, conduct themselves, live, and die. While Hagakure was for many years a secret text known only to the warrior vassals of the Nabeshima clan to which the author belonged, it later came to be recognized as a classic exposition of samurai thought.
The original Hagakure consists of over 1,300 short texts that Tsunetomo dictated to a younger samurai over a seven-year period. William Scott Wilson has selected and translated here three hundred of the most representative of those texts to create an accessible distillation of this guide for samurai. No other translator has so thoroughly and eruditely rendered this text into English.
For this edition, Wilson has added a new introduction that casts Hagakure in a different light than ever before. Tsunetomo refers to bushido as “the Way of death,” a description that has held a morbid fascination for readers over the years. But in Tsunetomo’s time, bushido was a nuanced concept that related heavily to the Zen concept of muga, the “death” of the ego. Wilson’s revised introduction gives the historical and philosophical background for that more metaphorical reading of Hagakure, and through this lens, the classic takes on a fresh and nuanced appeal.
In eighteenth-century Japan, Tsunetomo Yamamoto created the Hagakure, a document that served as the basis for samurai warrior behavior. Its guiding principles greatly influenced the Japanese ruling class and shaped the underlying character of the Japanese psyche, from businessmen to soldiers. Bushido is the first English translation of this work. It provides a powerful message aimed at the mind and spirit of the samurai warrior. With Bushido, one can better put into perspective Japan’s historical path.
HAGAKURE («oculto tras las hojas», «a la sombra de las hojas») es el más célebre tratado sobre la vida y la conducta de los samuráis, sobre la vía del samurai.
Terminado de recopilar en 1716, transmite pensamientos y sentencias que aportan gran conocimiento acerca de la filosofía y el código de comportamiento del espíritu Bushido: el camino del guerrero, la aceptación total de la vida sabiendo morir en cada instante, el desafío de la vida prefiriendo la muerte a una vida indigna o impura, o el estar presto y deseoso de morir en cualquier momento para ser totalmente fiel a su señor, entre otra amplia variedad de preceptos. Mantenido en secreto durante más de siglo y medio, celosamente guardado por el clan Nabeshima, de Hizen (al que Yamamoto pertenecía), y cada vez más alejado del pragmatismo y el materialismo que impregna nuestra sociedad actual, el HAGAKURE se mantiene, no obstante, como una de las obras más sublimes y representativas de la cultura japonesa tradicional.
The Book of Five Rings which was written by Miyamoto Musashi, a Samurai of legendary renown, about 1645 AD. It is a masterpiece of simple exposition written by a master swordsman, who, near the end of his spectacular life, tried earnestly to explain the essentials of individual combat and the essence of being a Samurai. His book is widely considered to a cornerstone of the philosophy of Bushido.
Hagakure - The Way of the Samurai, meaning "Hidden by Leaves", composed from dialogs by the famous Samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo, by a scribe, Tashiro Tsuramoto, about 1716 AD. It explains the major ideas and philosophy that are essential to the "way of the Samurai", by which is meant the "way of dying". It contains numerous tales of various Samurai and their deeds which illustrate their philosophy and practice.
Bushido - The Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobe which was first published 1899. It is an extremely literate presentation by a Japanese intellectual who wished to present Japan and its fundamental philosophy in a way that could be understood by Westerners. It describes how the Shinto Religion and Buddhism are the underpinnings of the essentially militaristic view of honor and life that are inherent in Bushido, the Samurai code.
This 2012 revised edition contains a linked table of contents, illustrations, a revised translation, as well as internally linked tables for each major work and chapter.
Tsunetomo Yamamoto wurde 1659 in Saga in Japan geboren. Nach einer Laufbahn als Samurai wurde er Zen-Mönch, weil ihm nach dem Tod seines Fürsten durch dessen Erlass der rituelle Selbstmord verboten war. Yamamoto diktierte "Hagakure" zwischen 1710 und 1716 dem Schreiber Tashiro Tsuramoto. Der Autor verstarb 1719.
À la mort du seigneur Nabeshima, plutôt que de se donner la mort pour accompagner jusqu'au bout son maître, Yamamoto Tsunetomo préféra se faire moine pour mourir symboliquement au monde. En 1710, un disciple nommé Tashiro vint le trouver au milieu de sa retraite. De leurs entretiens naquit le Hagakure, testament spirituel d'un samouraï qui voua son existence au service de son seigneur et de son clan. Il ne s'agit pas d'un traité, mais d'une suite de réflexions. C'est le témoignage d'un homme qui vécut authentiquement dans et pour la Voie du samouraï. Copié et recopié, ce texte a circulé secrètement entre les mains des samouraïs du clan Nabeshima, avant d'être présenté au public japonais au début du XXe siècle.Il pourrait se résumer à cette seule maxime : pour être véritablement samouraï, il convient d'accepter qu'il faille mourir. Cependant, la perspective du combat n'est pas l'objet de Tsunetomo. L'épreuve de la mort est davantage liée à l'entrée dans le " Haut Service ". Car avant d'être un guerrier, le samouraï est un serviteur. Il est celui qui voue sa vie à la protection et au bien de son seigneur. Loin d'être " morbide " ou " nihiliste ", le renoncement à la vie se rapporte à la vérité de l'amour plus qu'à la pulsion de mort.L'ordre des samouraïs n'existe plus, mais la voie de l'héroïsme chevaleresque reste une possibilité offerte à l'homme de s'accomplir. Renoncement à soi pour autrui, confiance, force, détermination, courage, fierté, dignité, discipline, dépassement de la peur et des aspects médiocres de l'existence sont plus que jamais des enjeux de notre temps. Voilà pourquoi Yukio Mishima considérait le Hagakure comme le " fondement " de son sens moral.
Cosa otterrai leggendo questa versione?
- Il vero vangelo dei samurai nascosto per ben duecento anni.
- Un libro sorprendentemente attuale per la profondità interiore dello spirito Samurai.
- Una visione “spiazzante” per la nostra cultura occidentale che deve far riflettere.
- La chiave che svela il segreto del successo del “sistema Giappone” nel mondo.
- Arricchito in esclusiva in questa edizione un approfondimento storico sull’imperialismo giapponese.
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